Chemical Reactions Box

Introduction This unit will explore the big idea of chemical changes and interactions.  The overall approach of the unit will be inquiry-based.  The students will utilize their previous studies of atoms ...

Introduction

This unit will explore the big idea of chemical changes and interactions.  The overall approach of the unit will be inquiry-based.  The students will utilize their previous studies of atoms and bonding as well as apply their knowledge to chemical reaction labs and activities.  An understanding of chemical reactions will prepare the students for the upcoming unit which examines chemical reactions between acids and bases.  The students will discover that during ordinary physical or chemical processes matter can neither be created nor destroyed.  It can only change forms.

Big Ideas and Essential Questions

Chemical Changes and Interactions: During ordinary physical or chemical processes matter can neither be created or destroyed.  It can only change forms.

The overarching essential questions that will guide student inquiry include:

The essential questions that will be considered include:

Learning Objectives

Students will understand that…

Student will know…

Student will be able to…

What goals should I have as an educator?

Chemical Reactions Box - Block Plan

Day 1

Objective: Observe Chemical Change

Strategies: Inquiry and Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension

  1. Warm up: What do you already know about chemical reactions? (Determine Prior Knowledge) Display on newsprint paper posted around the class. (Incorporate Essential Questions,  Understandings, Key Knowledge & Skills)
  2. Hook: Baking Soda Activity
  3. Read & Discuss Section 6-1 Observing Chemical Change pgs. 214-219
  4. Activity: Calcium Chloride & Baking Soda
  5. Assessment: Homework-List several examples of physical changes & chemical changes.

Day 2

Objective: Compare Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

Strategies: Inquiry and Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension

  1. Inquiry Lab: Baggie Science-  Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
  2. Assessment: Read pgs. 220-221 and complete the graphing problems.

Day 3

Objective:Evidence of Chemcal Reactions

Strategy: Inquiry

  1. Hook: Marshmallow investigation.
  2. Lab Inquiry: Where’s the Evidence? 
  3. Assessment: Complete the analysis and conclude reflection questions on the lab.

Day 4

Objective: How Chemical Reactions Occur

Strategy: Interactive Video Viewing

  1. Bill Nye Video: Chemical Reactions
  2. Use the Interactive Video: Inquiry-Oriented Method to assess understanding.

Day 5

Objective: Describe the Components of Chemical Equations

Strategies: Inquiry and Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension

  1. Hook: Do you lose anything activity?
  2. Read & Discuss Section 6-2 pgs. 224-229  Components of a Chemical Equation
  3. Practice balancing equations.

Day 6

Objective: Conservation of Matter

Strategy: Cooperative Learning and Authentic Assessment

  1. Hook: Importance of balance.
  2. Model Mania Project
  3. Present Model Mania Projects to the class.
  4. Complete self-assessment rubric.

 Day 7

Objective: Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Strategy: Inquiry

  1. Hook: Cracker Chew
  2. Inquiry Lab: Vitamin C
  3. Assessment: Complete the analysis and conclude reflection questions on the lab.

Day 8

Objective: Combustion

Strategies: Inquiry, Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension, Concept Maps

  1. Hook: Pouring a gas activity
  2. Read & Discuss Section 6-2 pgs. 242-245 Understanding Fire
  3. Assessment: Create a concept map to represent what you have learned about the fire triangle and home safety.

Day 9

Objective: Demonstrate Conservation of Matter Using a Closed System

Strategies: Inquiry, Cooperative Learning, and Authentic Assessment

  1. Project Inquiry: Closed Chemistry

Day 10

Objective: Final Assessment

Strategy: Authentic Assessment

  1. Quiz on Terms
  2. Present Closed Chemistry Project to the class and fill out self-assessment

 

3. Where's the Evidence?

Objective: Observe Evidence of Chemical Reactions

Big Idea Application:
During chemical processes matter can change forms.

The overarching essential questions being considered:

What happens during a chemical reaction?

The essential questions being considered:
How can you tell if a chemical reaction has occurred, when two chemicals are mixed?

Approach/ Strategy being applied:

  1. Concept Maps
  2. Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation- 5E Instructional Model
  3. Evaluation Tool from the Poison Project Article
  4. Structured Inquiry

Standard Addressed: 5a: Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.

Materials:

Anticipatory Set (Hook):

  1. Give the students a marshmallow.  
  2. Ask the questions:
    • How many different ways can you alter the marshmallow "physically" and still end up with a marshmallow?
    • List the ways you could alter the marshmallow "chemically" to create a new substance that is no longer the same as the original marshmallow?
  3. Make a chart of all the ideas on the board.  
  4. Explain that during the lab we will investigate evidence of new substances forming and chemical changes occurring.     

Lesson Plan:


Review terminology- physical change, chemical change

Where's the evidence lab activity

Part 1

  1. Put a pea-sized pile of sodium carbonate into a clean plastic cup.  Record the appearance of the sodium carbonate on the data table.
  2. Observe a dropper containing hydrochloric acid.  Record the appearance of the acid on the data table. CAUTION:  Hydrochloric acid can burn you or anything else it touches.  Wash spills with water.    
  3. Made a prediction about how you think the acid and the sodium carbonate will react when mixed.  Record your prediction on the data table.
  4. Add about 10 drops of hydrochloric acid to the sodium carbonate. Swirl to mix the contents of the cup.  Record your observations on the data table.

Part 2    

  1. Fold up the sides of the aluminum foil square to make a small tray.
  2. Use a plastic spoon to place a pea-sized pile of sugar onto the tray.
  3. Carefully describe the appearance of the sugar on your data table.
  4. Secure a small candle on your desktop in a lump of clay.  Carefully light the candle with a lighter, only after being instructed to do so by your teacher.  CAUTION: Tie back long hair and loose clothing.
  5. Predict what you think will happen, if you heat the sugar.  Record your prediction on the data table.
  6. Use tongs to hold the aluminum tray.  Heat the sugar slowly by moving the tray gently back and forth over the flame.  Make observations, while the sugar is heating.
  7. When you think there is no longer a chemical reaction occurring, blow out the candle.
  8. Allow the tray to cool for a few seconds and set it down on your desk.  
  9. Record your observations of the material left in the tray.

Part 3

  1. Put about 2ml of copper sulfate solution in one test tube.  CAUTION: Copper sulfate is poisonous and can stain your skin and clothes.  Do not touch it or get it in your mouth.  
  2. Put an equal amount of sodium carbonate solution in another test tube.  
  3. Record the appearance of both liquids on the data table.
  4. Write a prediction of what you think will happen, when the two solutions are mixed.  Record your prediction on the data table.
  5. Combine the two solutions into one test tube and record your observations. Note- the reaction occurs quickly.    
  6. CAUTION: Dispose of the solution, as directed by your teacher.
  7. Wash your hands and clean up, when you have finished working.


Assessment:

Complete the analysis and conclusion section of the lab.

Contribution to student understanding:
This lesson asks the students to describe, explain, and predict the outcomes of the experiments.  Using this type of questioning will increase their "scientific literacy" and foster their understanding of the "nature of science." The "nature of science" states that all scientific knowledge is based, at least partially, on and/ or derived from observation of the natural world.

Attachment Size
WheresEvidenceStudentSheet.doc 62 KB

6. Model Mania

Objective:  Conservation of Matter

Big Idea Application:
During ordinary physical or chemical processes matter can neither be created nor destroyed.  It can only change forms.

The overarching essential questions being considered:

What happens during a chemical reaction?

The essential questions being considered:

How could you use your understanding of mathematical equations, to write a science equation showing that the number of atoms at the start of a reaction will equal the number of atoms at the end?

Approach/ Strategy being applied:

Standard Addressed: 5b: Students know the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter.  In chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same.

Materials:


Anticipatory Set (Hook):

  1. Asks the students whether it sounds like a good deal, if they were to get three
  2. things in exchange for one?
  3. Ask who has a $1 bill?
  4. Have that student come forward and give him/her three quarters for their $1 bill.  
  5. Ask the student if he/she if is happy?
  6. Discuss: Is it hard to accept, when things do not balance out?  
  7. The same is true in science; balance is necessary.

Lesson Plan:

  1. Review terminology- product, reactant, yields
  2. Model Mania Lab Activity: Students will work in groups and design a poster to display 3 balanced chemical equations. (See attached student sheet)
  3. Present projects to the class

Assessment:
Complete self assessment rubric

Contribution to student understanding:
                                                                           
The "nature of science" states that, although scientific knowledge is empirically based, it nevertheless involves human imagination and creativity (Lederman & Lederman, 2004).  This lesson asks the students to use their creativity to make a display that demonstrates a scientific concept.  The understanding they gain should also help them to describe and explain the results of chemical changes seen in nature.  Additionally, it helps them determine answers to questions about everyday experiences.

Attachment Size
ModelManiaStudentSheet.doc 29 KB

7. Controlling Chemical Reactions

Objective:  Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Big Idea Application:

During chemical processes matter can change forms.

The overarching essential questions being considered:

What happens during a chemical reaction?

The essential questions being considered:

How can you tell if a chemical reaction has occurred, when two chemicals are mixed?

Approach/ Strategy being applied:

Standards Addressed:
5a: Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
5c: Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat.

Materials:

Anticipatory Set (Hook):

  1. Provide the students with a cracker.  
  2. Ask them to observe the cracker.
  3. Have them chew the cracker, but not swallow it.
  4. Ask the students:
  • What is happening to the cracker?
  • Why?
  • What factors in your mouth contribute to these changes?

Lesson Plan:
Review terminology- activation energy

Lab: Can you speed up or slow down a reaction?

  1. Put on your safety goggles.
  2. Obtain a test tube rack with three test tubes.
  3. Fill one test tube with 125ml warm water, one with 125ml cold water and one with 125ml room temperature water. 
  4. Place a scrap of paper under each test tube and label it with the water's temperature to help you remember which test tube is which.
  5. Carefully add three drops of iodine solution to each test tube and stir. 
  6. What color is the water?_____________________ (They should all be the same.)
  7. Crush up one of the ½ tablets of vitamin C.
  8. What do you think will happen to each of the test tubes when the vitamin C is added? _____________________________________________
  9. Get your clock or stop watch ready. Pour the vitamin C into your warm water test tube. 
  10. Time how long it takes for the test tube to change color.
  11. Record your observations on the data table.
  12. Repeat steps 8-10 using the other 2 test tubes.

Assessment:
Complete Analysis and Conclusion Questions
                                                                                         
Contribution to student understanding:

This lesson asks the students to describe, explain, and predict the outcomes of the experiment.  Using this type of questioning will increase their "scientific literacy" and foster their understanding of the "nature of science," which states that all scientific knowledge is based, at least partially, on and/ or derived from observation of the natural world.

 

Attachment Size
ControllingReactionsStudentSheet.doc 51 KB

Chemical Reactions - Assessment Ideas

Performance Tasks:

Closed Chemistry- Design and build a closed structure in which a chemical reaction can occur.  You will present your demonstration to the class providing evidence for conservation of mass.  The presentation should include a poster of the balanced chemical equation for your reaction.

Model Mania
- Using a poster, create a balanced chemical equation display with atom molecule cut-outs.  The exhibit should include at least 5 examples of balanced equations and written formulas.

Other Evidence:

Student Self-Assessment and Reflection:

Historical Overview

Historical Perspective
Educational reform in the field of science was significantly affected by the launch of Sputnik in 1957.  Americans felt threatened by the technological advancements of the Soviet Union causing an outcry from the American people which led to a reformation of science education.  The federal government responded and today the scientific community continues the effort to develop scientific literacy and an understanding of the nature of science for all citizens.   

Scientific Literacy & Nature of Science
Many educators today strive to educate their students to be scientifically literate, a term introduced during the 1970s.  The National Science Education Standards define scientific literacy as "the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity" (National Science Education Standard, 1996).  To develop scientific literacy, students need to have an understanding of the "nature of science."  Norman and Judith Lederman define the phrase "nature of science" as the "values and assumptions inherent to scientific knowledge and the development of scientific knowledge" (Lederman & Lederman, 2004). 

Goals
My goal is to expose my students to the following components of "scientific literacy" and the "nature of science" during my unit:

To develop these skills Bybee (1995) suggests replacing large amounts of information students are required to learn with key concepts that can be taught more in depth.  He also proposes integrating earth science, biology, chemistry, physics and even technology, math, ethics and social situations.  These ideas are crucial to developing students, who are scientifically literate.

References
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Bracey, G. (2007, October).  The First Time ‘Everything Changed.' PHI DELTAKAPPAN, 119-136.
Bybee, R., Taylor, J., Gardener, A., Van Scotter, P., Powell, J., Westbrook, A., & Landes, N. (2006, July). The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins, Effectiveness, and Applications. Colorado Springs, CO: BSCS.
Bybee, R. (1995). Science Curriculum Reform in the United States.  Retrieved September 12, 2008, from http://www.nationalacademies.org/rise/backg3a.htm
Bybee, R. (1997, October 4). The Sputnik Era: Why is this Educational Reform Different From All Other Reforms? ( Symposium, "Reflecting on Sputnik: Linking the Past, Present, and Future of Educational Reform," Washington, DC).
Crawford, B. (1998).  The Poisons Project. Science Scope, 18-21.
DeBoer, G. (1991).  Scientific Literacy and the New Progressivism.  In A History of Ideas in Science Education, 173-189.  New York and London: Teachers College Press.
EdSource (2008). No Child Left Behind Overview.  Retrieved April 15, 2008, from  http://www.edsource.org/edu_nclb.cfm
Frank, D., Jones, T., Little, J., Miaoulis, B., Miller, S., & Pasachoff, J. (2008). Focus on Physical Science (pp. 222-223) Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Lederman, N. & Lederman, J. (2004). Revising Instruction to Teach Nature of Science.  The Science Teacher, 36-39.
Matthews, C. (1994, March). Interactive Video: Reviewing science, stereotypes, and society. The Science Teacher, 20-23.
Monet, J. & Etkina, E. (2008). Fostering Self-Reflection and Meaningful Learning: Earth Science Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education. Springer Science & Business Media.
National Research Council (1996) National Science Education Standards. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
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Perlstein, L. (2004). The Issue Left Behind.  The Nation.  Retrieved April 6, 2008, from http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041108/perstein
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Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Chemical Reactions - Standards

California Science Content Standards

Grade 8

Standard 5: Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.