3. Layers Upon Layers

Grand Canyon
The study of rock layers, or stratigraphy, is a natural way to introduce students to the fundamental principles of geology and to lead into the idea of geologic time. In this lesson, students are introduced to Nicolas Steno’s 3 major laws of stratigraphy: the law of original horizontality, the law of superposition and the law of lateral continuity. Students also add their observations of sediment sorting from previous lessons (Soil Analysis, Erosion Patterns, and the Sediment Study Project) to generate a fourth “law” concerning depositional environment – the tiny grains in mudstone were most likely deposited in very still water like a lake or delta while large gravel in conglomerate was most likely deposited in fast moving rivers and streams. While this activity has students depositing sediments in clear plastic cups or Mason jars, it is recommended that the teacher simultaneously conduct the activity using a squeeze box like the one described by Eric Muller. In this way, when the student activity concludes, the teacher can take the activity further to show how layers can become folded and faulted by plate movements. This lesson is a natural extension of the Going Further activity from the Crayon Rock Cycle lesson where sediments are mixed with sodium silicate to create home-made sedimentary rocks.

Can describe the environments in which different sedimentary rocks are formed
Can identify and explain Steno’s 3 laws of stratigraphy
Can apply the laws of stratigraphy to describe the relative age of sediment layers

Law of Original Horizontality
Law of Superposition
Law of Lateral Continuity
Depositional Environment
Optional: Principle of Uniformitarianism

3. Layers Upon Layers - Logistics

3. Layers Upon Layers - Background

3. Layers Upon Layers - Getting Ready

3. Layers Upon Layers - Lesson Plan

3. Layers Upon Layers - Assessments

3. Layers Upon Layers - Sources and Standards